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Chapter 1 The Nature of Science

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

1. 

Physical science is the study of_____.
a.
energy
b.
behavior
c.
living things
d.
matter
e.
matter and energy
 

2. 

When a physical scientist studies the makeup of matter, he or she is studying the matter's _____.
a.
behavior
c.
energy
b.
composition
d.
technology
 

3. 

The lightbulb is an example of _____.
a.
a dependent variable
c.
pure science
b.
an exercise
d.
technology
 

4. 

A physical scientist who studies heat and light is working with _____.
a.
energy
c.
properties of matter
b.
matter
d.
living organisms
 

5. 

Another term for technology is _____.
a.
applied science
c.
matter
b.
energy
d.
pure science
 

6. 

Physical science deals with the _____ of matter.
a.
energy
b.
composition
c.
living things
d.
properties
e.
properties and composition
 

7. 

The process of gathering information through the senses is called _____.
a.
analyzing
b.
conclusion
c.
hypothesizing
d.
inferring
e.
observation
 

8. 

A testable prediction about a possible solution to a problem is called _____.
a.
a conclusion
b.
an exercise
c.
an experiment
d.
a hypothesis
e.
a variable
 

9. 

When designing an experiment, the first step is to _____.
a.
analyze the data
c.
state a hypothesis
b.
list a procedure
d.
state the problem
 

10. 

A rule or principle that describes the behavior of something in nature is a _____.
a.
hypothesis
b.
problem
c.
scientific law
d.
theory
e.
variable
 

11. 

An explanation of an event that is based on repeated observations and experiments is a _____.
a.
hypothesis
b.
problem
c.
scientific law
d.
theory
e.
variable
 

12. 

A situation in which the steps needed to find a solution are obvious is _____.
a.
a hypothesis
b.
a problem
c.
an exercise
d.
an experiment
e.
a variable
 

13. 

An idea, structure, or system that can be used to represent something you are trying to explain is a _____.
a.
constant
b.
hypothesis
c.
law
d.
model
e.
variable
 

14. 

A process that uses certain skills to solve a problem is called _____.
a.
a hypothesis
b.
a problem
c.
a model
d.
an experiment
e.
critical thinking
 

15. 

A situation in which the steps needed to find a solution are NOT obvious is _____.
a.
a hypothesis
b.
a problem
c.
an exercise
d.
an experiment
e.
a variable
 

16. 

In an experiment to determine whether the popping of popcorn is affected by the temperature at which it is stored, counting the popped kernels is an example of a(n) _____.
a.
conclusion
c.
hypothesis
b.
control
d.
observation
 

17. 

A standard for comparison that helps to ensure that the experimental result is caused by the condition being tested is the _____.
a.
constant
b.
control
c.
dependent variable
d.
hypothesis
e.
independent variable
 

18. 

A factor in an experiment that changes from the manipulation of the independent variable is the _____.
a.
constant
b.
control
c.
dependent variable
d.
hypothesis
e.
observation
 

19. 

A factor that does NOT change in an experiment is the _____.
a.
constant
b.
control
c.
dependent variable
d.
hypothesis
e.
independent variable
 

20. 

The reason for wearing safety goggles in a laboratory is to _____.
a.
improve eyesight
c.
protect the experimenter from burns
b.
protect clothing from chemical spills
d.
protect the eyes from harmful substances
 

21. 

An organized process used to gather observations and test a hypothesis is _____.
a.
an exercise
c.
a constant
b.
an experiment
d.
a problem
 

22. 

A factor that is manipulated in an experiment to change the dependent variable is the _____.
a.
constant
b.
control
c.
dependent variable
d.
hypothesis
e.
independent variable
 

23. 

The application of scientific knowledge to practical problems is _____.
a.
a discovery
c.
pure science
b.
a hypothesis
d.
technology
 

Matching
 
 
Match each term with the correct statement below. The terms may be used more than once.
a.
observation
b.
conclusion
 

24. 

The solid is sugar.
 

25. 

The building is red.
 

26. 

The water is hot.
 

27. 

The metal conducts heat.
 

28. 

It is going to rain.
 

29. 

The liquid smells like peppermint.
 

30. 

The music is loud.
 
 
Match each term with the correct statement below. The terms may be used more than once.
a.
observation
b.
inference
 

31. 

Sam is tall and thin.
 

32. 

The sky is cloudy; it must be getting ready to rain.
 

33. 

The woman must be wealthy because she drives an expensive car.
 

34. 

It is cold outside.
 

35. 

It's cold, so it will probably snow tonight.
 
 
An experiment was designed to investigate the effect of caffeine on the heartbeat of water fleas. Two populations of water fleas were cultured. Both populations had water with the same mineral content, were supplied with identical amounts of bacteria as food, received the same amount of light, and had their temperature maintained at 20ºC. Every two hours, water fleas from both populations were selected and their heartbeats were monitored. The fleas of population one had caffeine administered five minutes before the heartbeat was checked. The fleas of population two were given nothing.

Based on the experiment above, match each term with the correct statement below.
a.
independent variable
b.
dependent variable
c.
constant
d.
control
 

36. 

food
 

37. 

heartbeat
 

38. 

water temperature
 

39. 

population two
 

40. 

caffeine
 



 
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