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Name: 
 

Atmic Structure and the Periodic Table



Modified True/False
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.  If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.
 

1. 

The chart showing the classifications of elements according to their properties and increasing atomic numbers is called the periodic table.  _______________

 

2. 

The mass of an electron is about equal to the mass of a proton.  _______________

 

3. 

Elements arranged in vertical columns in the periodic table are called periods.  _______________

 

4. 

The region around the nucleus occupied by the electrons is called the negative zone.  _______________

 

5. 

The symbol for chlorine is C.  _______________

 

6. 

The maximum number of electrons in the second energy level of an atom is 4.  _______________

 

7. 

Two isotopes of carbon are carbon-12 and carbon-14. These isotopes differ from one another by two protons.  _______________

 

8. 

Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity.  _______________

 

9. 

Seven electrons in the outermost energy level is characteristic of a metal.  _______________

 

10. 

The number of protons in an atom is called the atomic mass.  _______________

 

11. 

The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom is the mass number.  _______________

 

12. 

The weighted average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes that occur in nature for a particular element is the average atomic number.  _______________

 

13. 

A very stable electron arrangement in the outer energy level is characteristic of noble gases.  _______________

 

14. 

Elements having three or fewer electrons in the outer energy level are classified as nonmetals.  _______________

 

15. 

The atomic masses of the elements are NOT whole number values because of the existence of quarks.  _______________

 

16. 

The identity of an element is determined by the number of protons.  _______________

 

17. 

Moving from left to right in a row of the periodic table, metallic properties increase.  _______________

 

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

18. 

Each inner energy level of an atom has maximum numbers of _____ it can hold.
a.
electrons
c.
quarks
b.
neutrons
d.
protons
 

19. 

Dot diagrams are used to represent _____.
a.
atomic numbers
b.
atomic mass
c.
isotopes
d.
outer electrons
e.
the structure of the nucleus
 

20. 

Particles of matter that make up protons and neutrons are _____.
a.
electrons
c.
quarks
b.
isotopes
d.
atoms
 

21. 

A chemical symbol represents the _____ of an element.
a.
name
b.
reaction
c.
group
d.
structure
e.
type
 

22. 

Horizontal rows of the periodic table are called _____.
a.
clusters
b.
families
c.
groups
d.
periods
e.
quarks
 

23. 

Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons are called _____.
a.
isotopes
b.
metals
c.
metalloids
d.
radioactive
e.
transition elements
 

24. 

A particle that moves around the nucleus is _____.
a.
an electron
b.
an ion
c.
a neutron
d.
a quark
e.
a proton
 

25. 

Elements in Groups 3 through 12 of the periodic table are called _____.
a.
isotopes
b.
metalloids
c.
metals
d.
noble gases
e.
transition elements
 

26. 

A certain atom has 26 protons, 26 electrons, and 30 neutrons. Its mass number is _____.
a.
26
b.
30
c.
52
d.
56
e.
82
 

Short Answer
 

27. 

Explain why the periodic table is such a useful tool.
 

28. 

Describe where the electrons are in the atom, where they have the least energy, and where they have the most energy.
 

29. 

Chlorine's atomic mass is 35.453. List the two most reasonable isotopes of chlorine. Which one should be more common?
 

30. 

A common radioactive isotope of carbon is C-14. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does it have?
 

31. 

One isotope of uranium is U-238. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does it have?
 

32. 

Cobalt's atomic mass is 58.9332. What is the most common isotope of cobalt?
 

33. 

Use the periodic table to find the name, atomic number, and the average atomic mass of the following elements: F, O, P, S.
 

34. 

Give the period and group for each of the following elements: F, O, P, S.
 

35. 

Write the name of each of the following elements, and classify it as a metal, a nonmetal, or a metalloid: Na, Ba, Ca, Ta, La, Pa, Ra, Al, As, At, Ar.
 

36. 

Give the name for each of the following elements: Na, Fe, W, Ag, Sn, Sb, Pb, Au.
 
 
atomic_structure_files/i0400000.jpg
 

37. 

Do the elements shown in Figure 10-2 belong to the same period or the same group?
 

38. 

Are the elements in Figure 10-2 metals or nonmetals?
 

39. 

Are the properties of the two elements in Figure 10-2 similar or quite different?
 

40. 

At room temperature, will the elements in Figure 10-2 be solids, liquids, or gases?
 

Problem
 

41. 

Suppose that you have just discovered a new element and have named it neptunite. While studying your new element, you find that it has two isotopes—neptunite-220 and neptunite-250. What is the average atomic mass of your new element? (Assume that these two isotopes are present in equal amounts in nature.)
 

42. 

Assume that an element is composed of one isotope with a mass of 142 and another isotope with a mass of 145. For each atom with a mass of 142, there are three atoms with a mass of 145. What is the average atomic mass of the element?
 



 
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