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Name: 
 

Heredity Practice Test



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

1. 

What did Gregor Mendel do to study different characteristics in his genetics experiments?
a.
He studied only asexual animals.
b.
He studied only self-pollinating plants.
c.
He cross-pollinated plants.
d.
He cross-pollinated animals.
 

2. 

In Mendel’s experiments, what proportion of the plants in the F2 generation had a trait that had been absent in the F1 generation?
a.
none
b.
one fourth
c.
half
d.
three fourths
 

3. 

Factors that control traits are called
a.
genes.
b.
purebreds.
c.
recessives.
d.
parents.
 

4. 

Scientists call an organism that has two different alleles for a trait a
a.
hybrid.
b.
trait.
c.
purebred.
d.
factor.
 

5. 

What does the notation TT mean to geneticists?
a.
two dominant alleles
b.
two recessive alleles
c.
at least one dominant allele
d.
one dominant and one recessive allelle
 

6. 

What does the notation Tt mean to geneticists?
a.
two dominant alleles
b.
two recessive alleles
c.
at least one recessive allele
d.
one dominant allele and one recessive allelle
 

7. 

What is probability?
a.
the actual results from a series of events
b.
the likelihood that a particular event will occur
c.
the way the results of one event affect the next event
d.
the number of times a coin lands heads up
 

8. 

What did Mendel predict was the probability of producing a tall plant from a genetic cross of two hybrid tall plants?
a.
one in four
b.
two in four
c.
three in four
d.
four in four
 

9. 

What does a Punnett square show?
a.
all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross
b.
only the dominant alleles in a genetic cross
c.
only the recessive alleles in a genetic cross
d.
all of Mendel’s discoveries about genetic crosses
 

10. 

If a homozygous black guinea pig (BB) is crossed with a homozygous white guinea pig (bb), what is the probability that an offspring will have black fur?
a.
25 percent
b.
50 percent
c.
75 percent
d.
100 percent
 

11. 

An organism’s physical appearance is its
a.
genotype.
b.
phenotype.
c.
codominance.
d.
heterozygous.
 

12. 

What does codominance mean in genetics?
a.
Both alleles are dominant.
b.
Both alleles are recessive.
c.
The alleles are neither dominant nor recessive.
d.
Each allele is both dominant and recessive.
 

13. 

What is the chromosome theory of inheritance?
a.
Chromosomes are carried from parents to offspring on hybrids.
b.
Genes are carried from parents to offspring on chromosomes.
c.
Hybrid pairs of chromosomes combine to form offspring.
d.
Codominant genes combine to form new hybrids.
 

14. 

Walter Sutton discovered that the sex cells of grasshoppers have exactly
a.
12 times the number of chromosomes found in the body cells.
b.
twice the number of chromosomes found in the body cells.
c.
the same number of chromosomes found in the body cells.
d.
half the number of chromosomes found in the body cells.
 

15. 

What happens during meiosis?
a.
Each sex cell loses half of its chromosomes.
b.
Chromosome pairs separate to form new sex cells.
c.
Each sex cell copies itself to form four new chromosomes.
d.
Chromosome pairs remain together when new sex cells are formed.
 

16. 

When sex cells combine to produce offspring, each sex cell will contribute
a.
one fourth of the normal number of chromosomes.
b.
half the normal number of chromosomes.
c.
the normal number of chromosomes.
d.
twice the normal number of chromosomes.
 

17. 

What is the genetic code?
a.
the order of nitrogen bases along a gene
b.
the number of nitrogen bases in a DNA molecule
c.
the order of amino acids in a protein
d.
the number of guanine and cytosine bases in a chromosome
 

18. 

The order of the bases along a gene determines the order in which
a.
sugars are put together to form a carbohydrate.
b.
genes are arranged on a chromosome.
c.
amino acids are put together to form a protein.
d.
chromosomes are arranged in the nucleus.
 

19. 

What is a mutation?
a.
any change that is harmful to an organism
b.
any change in a gene or chromosome
c.
any change that is helpful to an organism
d.
any change in the phenotype of a cell
 

20. 

Which term refers to physical characteristics that are studied in genetics?
a.
traits
b.
offspring
c.
generations
d.
hybrids
 

21. 

The different forms of a gene are called
a.
alleles.
b.
factors.
c.
masks.
d.
traits.
 

22. 

What does the notation tt mean to geneticists?
a.
two dominant alleles
b.
two recessive alleles
c.
at least one dominant allele
d.
one dominant and one recessive allelle
 

23. 

An organism’s genotype is its
a.
genetic makeup
b.
feather color
c.
physical appearance
d.
stem height
 

24. 

Which nitrogen base in RNA is NOT part of DNA?
a.
adenine
b.
guanine
c.
cytosine
d.
uracil
 

25. 

An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait is
a.
codominant.
b.
tall.
c.
homozygous.
d.
heterozygous.
 

26. 

A heterozygous organism has
a.
three different alleles for a trait.
b.
two identical alleles for a trait.
c.
only one allele for a trait.
d.
two different alleles for a trait.
 

Short Answer
 
 
Use the diagram to answer each question.

heredity_review_files/i0290000.jpg
 

27. 

Which trait - white flowers or purple flowers - is controlled by a dominant allele? Which is controlled by a recessive allele? How do you know?
 

28. 

In which generation are the parents purebred? In which generation are they hybrids?
 

29. 

In the F1 generation, what is the genotype of the offspring? What is their phenotype?
 

30. 

In the F2 generation, what percent of the offspring have purple flowers? What is the genotype of the purple-flowered offspring?
 

31. 

In the F2 generation, what percent of the offspring have white flowers? What are the genotypes of the white-flowered offspring?
 



 
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