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Genetics Test

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

1. 

What did Gregor Mendel do to study different characteristics in his genetics experiments?
a.
He studied only asexual animals.
b.
He studied only self-pollinating plants.
c.
He cross-pollinated plants.
d.
He cross-pollinated animals.
 

2. 

In Mendel’s experiments, what proportion of the plants in the F2 generation had a trait that had been absent in the F1 generation?
a.
none
b.
one fourth
c.
half
d.
three fourths
 

3. 

Factors that control traits are called
a.
genes.
b.
purebreds.
c.
recessives.
d.
parents.
 

4. 

Scientists call an organism that has two different alleles for a trait a
a.
hybrid.
b.
trait.
c.
purebred.
d.
factor.
 

5. 

What does the notation TT mean to geneticists?
a.
two dominant alleles
b.
two recessive alleles
c.
at least one dominant allele
d.
one dominant and one recessive allelle
 

6. 

What does the notation Tt mean to geneticists?
a.
two dominant alleles
b.
two recessive alleles
c.
at least one recessive allele
d.
one dominant allele and one recessive allelle
 

7. 

What is probability?
a.
the actual results from a series of events
b.
the likelihood that a particular event will occur
c.
the way the results of one event affect the next event
d.
the number of times a coin lands heads up
 

8. 

What does a Punnett square show?
a.
all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross
b.
only the dominant alleles in a genetic cross
c.
only the recessive alleles in a genetic cross
d.
all of Mendel’s discoveries about genetic crosses
 

9. 

An organism’s physical appearance is its
a.
genotype.
b.
phenotype.
c.
codominance.
d.
heterozygous.
 

10. 

What does codominance mean in genetics?
a.
Both alleles are dominant.
b.
Both alleles are recessive.
c.
The alleles are neither dominant nor recessive.
d.
Each allele is both dominant and recessive.
 

11. 

When sex cells combine to produce offspring, each sex cell will contribute
a.
one fourth of the normal number of chromosomes.
b.
half the normal number of chromosomes.
c.
the normal number of chromosomes.
d.
twice the normal number of chromosomes.
 

12. 

What is the genetic code?
a.
the order of nitrogen bases along a gene
b.
the number of nitrogen bases in a DNA molecule
c.
the order of amino acids in a protein
d.
the number of guanine and cytosine bases in a chromosome
 

13. 

The order of the bases along a gene determines the order in which
a.
sugars are put together to form a carbohydrate.
b.
genes are arranged on a chromosome.
c.
amino acids are put together to form a protein.
d.
chromosomes are arranged in the nucleus.
 

14. 

What does messenger RNA do during protein synthesis?
a.
copies the coded message from the DNA and carries it into the cytoplasm
b.
copies the coded message from the DNA and carries it into the nucleus
c.
carries amino acids and adds them to the growing protein
d.
copies the coded message from the protein and carries it into the nucleus
 

15. 

What do transfer RNA molecules do during protein synthesis?
a.
copy the coded message from the protein and carry it into the nucleus
b.
copy the coded message from the DNA and carry it into the nucleus
c.
carry amino acids and add them to the growing protein
d.
copy the coded message from the DNA and carry it into the cytoplasm
 

16. 

What is a mutation?
a.
any change that is harmful to an organism
b.
any change in a gene or chromosome
c.
any change that is helpful to an organism
d.
any change in the phenotype of a cell
 

17. 

A mutation is harmful to an organism if it
a.
changes the DNA of the organism.
b.
changes the phenotype of the organism.
c.
reduces the organism’s chances for survival and reproduction.
d.
makes the organism better able to avoid predators.
 

18. 

The different forms of a gene are called
a.
alleles.
b.
factors.
c.
masks.
d.
traits.
 

19. 

What does the notation tt mean to geneticists?
a.
two dominant alleles
b.
two recessive alleles
c.
at least one dominant allele
d.
one dominant and one recessive allelle
 

20. 

An organism’s genotype is its
a.
genetic makeup
b.
feather color
c.
physical appearance
d.
stem height
 

21. 

Which nitrogen base in RNA is NOT part of DNA?
a.
adenine
b.
guanine
c.
cytosine
d.
uracil
 

22. 

An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait is
a.
codominant.
b.
tall.
c.
homozygous.
d.
heterozygous.
 

23. 

A heterozygous organism has
a.
three different alleles for a trait.
b.
two identical alleles for a trait.
c.
only one allele for a trait.
d.
two different alleles for a trait.
 

24. 

Which of these traits is controlled by a gene with multiple alleles?
a.
straight hairline
b.
smile dimples
c.
widow’s peak
d.
blood type
 

25. 

What are multiple alleles?
a.
more than two genes that control a trait
b.
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
c.
three or more chromosomes that determine a trait
d.
more than two codominant genes in a chromosome
 

26. 

Why does height in humans have such a wide variety of phenotypes?
a.
Height is controlled by at least four genes.
b.
The gene for height has only two alleles.
c.
Height is controlled by sex-linked genes.
d.
Height is controlled by a recessive allele.
 

27. 

Which combination of sex chromosomes results in a male human being?
a.
XX
b.
YY
c.
XY
d.
either XX or YY
 

28. 

Why are sex-linked traits more common in males than in females?
a.
All alleles on the X chromosome are dominant.
b.
All alleles on the Y chromosome are recessive.
c.
A recessive allele on the X chromosome will always produce the trait in a male.
d.
Any allele on the Y chromosome will be codominant with the matching allele on the X chromosome.
 

29. 

How does a geneticist use pedigrees?
a.
to create genetic crosses
b.
to replicate identical strings of DNA
c.
to prove that sex-linked traits are caused by codominant alleles
d.
to trace the inheritance of traits over generations of families
 

30. 

What is a pedigree?
a.
a chart that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
b.
a geneticist who studies the inheritance of traits in humans
c.
a picture of all of the chromosomes in a cell
d.
an allele passed from parent to child on a sex chromosome
 

31. 

Genetic disorders are caused by
a.
pedigrees.
b.
mutations.
c.
dominant alleles.
d.
sickle-shaped cells.
 

32. 

No two people have the same DNA, except for
a.
crime suspects.
b.
brothers.
c.
sisters.
d.
identical twins.
 

33. 

How do police use DNA fingerprinting to help solve crimes?
a.
by proving that a suspect’s blood type matches evidence in a crime
b.
by showing that a suspect’s fingerprints are at a crime scene
c.
by comparing a suspect’s DNA patterns with evidence from a crime scene
d.
by matching phenotypes of suspects with DNA samples
 

34. 

One parent of a child has type A blood and the other has type B blood. What is the child’s blood type?
a.
Type A
b.
Type B
c.
Type AB
d.
Type O
 

35. 

Sex-linked genes are genes on
a.
the X chromosome only.
b.
the Y chromosome only.
c.
the X and Y chromosomes.
d.
all 23 pairs of chromosomes.
 

36. 

A carrier is a person who has
a.
one recessive and one dominant allele for a trait.
b.
two recessive alleles for a trait.
c.
two dominant alleles for a trait.
d.
more than two alleles for a trait.
 

37. 

What must occur for a girl to be colorblind?
a.
Each parent must be colorblind.
b.
Each parent must have the dominant allele for colorblindness.
c.
Each parent must have the recessive allele for colorblindness.
d.
Each parent must have two codominant alleles for colorblindness.
 

38. 

Hemophilia is caused by a(n)
a.
recessive allele on the X chromosome.
b.
extra chromosome.
c.
dominant allele.
d.
codominant allele.
 

Short Answer
 
 
Use the diagram to answer each question.

genetics_files/i0410000.jpg
 

39. 

What do the circles in the pedigree represent? What do the squares represent?
 

40. 

Which pairs of individuals in the pedigree have children?
 

41. 

Which individuals have the trait that is traced by the pedigree?
 

42. 

Which individuals are carriers of the trait that is traced by the pedigree?
 

43. 

Which individuals neither have the trait nor are carriers?
 

44. 

Could the trait that is traced by this pedigree be sex-linked? Explain why or why not.
 



 
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